Its main application is in hypotheses testing about a given population. Notice that, while a statistic is a"function" of observations, unfortunately, it is commonly called a random"variable" not a function.

Any object or event, which can vary in successive observations either in quantity or quality is called a"variable. Is the finding internally consistent; i. For a normally distributed set of values, a graph showing the dependence of the frequency of the deviations upon their magnitudes is a bell-shaped curve.

For example, the average value in a sample is a statistic. How is the sample to be selected? It is the entire group of interest, which we wish to describe or about which we wish to draw conclusions. About 68 percent of the values will differ from the mean by less than the standard deviation, and almost percent will differ by less than three times the standard deviation.

A subset of a population or universe. The sample variance is an unbiased estimate of population variance. Are the conclusions relevant to the questions posed in Item No.

For each population, there are many possible samples. Is the study a planned experiment i. Corporate executive must take risk in business, hence the need for business statistics.

They do not, in general, completely describe the distribution Fx of values within either the sample or the parent group; indeed, different distributions may have the same mean and standard deviation.

This allows us to combine several estimates to obtain a much better estimate. A market researcher may use test of significace to accept or reject the hypotheses about Business statistics chapter 3 group of buyers to which the firm wishes to sell a particular product.

Statistical inference refers to extending your knowledge obtained from a random sample from the entire population to the whole population. The main objective of Business Statistics is to make inferences e.

Are the observations reliable and replicable to defend your finding? A population is any entire collection of people, animals, plants or things on which we may collect data.

Any inferred conclusion from a sample data to the population from which the sample is drawn must be expressed in a probabilistic term. In either case, we would resort to looking at a sample chosen from the population and trying to infer information about the entire population by only examining the smaller sample.

At the planning stage of a statistical investigation, the question of sample size n is critical. Statistics is a science of making decisions with respect to the characteristics of a group of persons or objects on the basis of numerical information obtained from a randomly selected sample of the group.

For example, the average of the data in a sample is used to give information about the overall average in the population from which that sample was drawn.

There are many statistical procedures for determining, on the basis of a sample, whether the true population characteristic belongs to the set of values in the hypothesis or the alternative.

Inferential statistics could be used for explaining a phenomenon or checking for validity of a claim. An experiment is a process whose outcome is not known in advance with certainty.

Random variables are needed since one cannot do arithmetic operations on words; the random variable enables us to compute statistics, such as average and variance.

However, if some condensed records are given to the analyst, it is called a Secondary Data set. A random sample is only a sample of a finite outcomes of a random process. The analysis must be correctly performed and interpreted. She could calculate the average expenditure of the hundreds or perhaps thousands of customers who bought goods in her shop; that is, the population mean m.

This is known in mathematics as Inductive Reasoning, that is, knowledge of the whole from a particular. If so, are the necessary conditions of the methods of statistical analysis appropriate to the source and nature of the data?

A statistical experiment, in contrast is an operation in which one take a random sample from a population and infers the values of some variables. Probability is the language and a measuring tool for uncertainty in our statistical conclusions. The word estimate means to esteem, that is giving a value to something.

It is possible to draw more than one sample from the same population, and the value of a statistic will in general vary from sample to sample.

For example, it is a fact that the distribution of a sample average follows a normal distribution for sample size over Can the different representation be reconciled?

Suppose the manager of a shop wanted to know mthe mean expenditure of customers in her shop in the last year. The condition for randomness is essential to make sure the sample is representative of the population.QM, M.

Zainal 2 Types of statistics ¾A population is a collection of all possible individuals, objects, or measurements of interest. Chapter 1 3 ¾A parameter is a summary measure computed to describe a characteristic of the population ¾Asample is a portion, or part, of the population of interest. ¾A statistic is a summary measure.

Introductory Business Statistics with Interactive Spreadsheets – 1st Canadian Edition Chapter 6. F-Test and One-Way ANOVA F-distribution.

Years ago, statisticians discovered that when pairs of samples are taken from a normal population, the ratios of the variances of the samples in each pair will always follow the same distribution.

Not. (3 pts) Write down the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis that were tested in this study, both in words and using the appropriate notation. Business Statistics Final Exam Solutions December 17, 1 QM Business Statistics Chapter 3 For the following hypothesis test: with n = 64, σ = 9, and x =state a.

the decision rule in terms of the critical value of the test statistic. Step-by-step solutions to all your Statistics homework questions - Slader.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Statistics. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. The primary objective of Chapter 1 is to introduce you to the world of statistics, thereby enabling you to.

List quantitative and graphical examples of statistics within a business context.